The RPMs will jump much faster while revving without being in gear, because there's no load on the engine from the drivetrain. That's totally normal. The red line is there because that's the upper limit of how fast they want things to be spinning, so the rev limiter did its job and did not allow you to go PAST redline. Lots of people go to redline all the time (especially people who race their cars). The engine is designed to run safely up until redline.
You did not do any damage unless the engine was still cold (which is a really bad time to let an engine rev high or be put under heavy load). Either way though, it's never a smart thing to do while in park... what's the point? Unless you've got tons of mods and are trying to show off, there's absolutely no point... and even then, it's debatable.